In the present study, urinary bisphenol A (BPA) levels were reported for the first time in the Slovenian general population and were evaluated with regard to dietary and non-dietary exposure sources, and compared according to age, gender and area of residence. First morning urine was collected from children (6-11 years), their mothers (30-52 years) and fathers (30-53 years), living in urban and rural areas of Slovenia. Besides basic questionnaire data on general population characteristics, socio-economic status and dietary habits, BPA-specific data was also collected, including consumption of food and beverages from plastic and canned containers, presence of white dental fillings, the use of specific consumer products and hormonal treatments. Urine samples were analysed for both free and conjugated BPA using GC-MS/MS. The urinary levels of total BPA in children, mothers and fathers were low, with geometric means of 1.51, 0.79, and 0.20 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The levels were comparable with the levels reported for other European countries and were all below the current health-based guidance values. In line with large-scale surveys, the data revealed age-dependant BPA urinary levels, with the highest levels in the youngest age group. In mothers, urinary levels of BPA were determined by hormonal interactions more than dietary sources, while a positive association between urinary BPA and diet was apparent in children (canned food/drink and food from plastic material) and fathers (canned food/drink). The study clearly shows that physiological and behavioural differences account for differences in levels of urinary BPA among study groups, a finding that sets the priorities for future research.
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