Iran is a major supplier of the world pistachio market. In this study, we collected five pistachio cultivars from four main pistachio-producing zones in August and September 2016, and determined the residues of 18 organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid and nicotinoid pesticide in these samples using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, as an efficient method for determination of pesticides' residues. Next, single-chemical and chronic cumulative risk assessment was done based on the new approaches of the food specific Hazard Quotient and adversity specific Hazard Index. Fifteen from eighteen food-specific Hazard Quotients were above 1 even in cases when the respective contamination was bellow MRLs. The adversity specific Hazard Indexes values were above 1 for five from six adversities indicating various risks in the resulted levels of pistachios' contamination from the pesticides' mixture. However, no risk for carcinogenicity was found. Our results indicate the necessity of taking appropriate measures to control/standardize pesticides practice in pistachio cultivation in Iran and the need to re-establish the MRLs based on cumulative exposure.

Cumulative risk assessment of pesticide residues in different Iranian pistachio cultivars: Applying the source specific HQS and adversity specific HIA approaches in Real Life Risk Simulations (RLRS)

Kokaraki, Venetia;
2019

Abstract

Iran is a major supplier of the world pistachio market. In this study, we collected five pistachio cultivars from four main pistachio-producing zones in August and September 2016, and determined the residues of 18 organophosphorus, carbamate, pyrethroid and nicotinoid pesticide in these samples using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, as an efficient method for determination of pesticides' residues. Next, single-chemical and chronic cumulative risk assessment was done based on the new approaches of the food specific Hazard Quotient and adversity specific Hazard Index. Fifteen from eighteen food-specific Hazard Quotients were above 1 even in cases when the respective contamination was bellow MRLs. The adversity specific Hazard Indexes values were above 1 for five from six adversities indicating various risks in the resulted levels of pistachios' contamination from the pesticides' mixture. However, no risk for carcinogenicity was found. Our results indicate the necessity of taking appropriate measures to control/standardize pesticides practice in pistachio cultivation in Iran and the need to re-establish the MRLs based on cumulative exposure.
Cumulative dietary exposure; Cumulative risk assessment; Mixtures; Pesticide residues; Pistacia vera L.; Consumer Product Safety; Crops, Agricultural; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Humans; Iran; Nuts; Pesticide Residues; Pistacia; Risk Assessment; Time Factors; Computer Simulation; Food Contamination; Models, Theoretical
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12076/6555
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