Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation represents a critical process both for successful metastatic spread of the tumor and for the development of thrombotic complications in cancer patients. To get further insights into this process, we investigated and compared the molecular mechanisms of platelet aggregation induced by two different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and a colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2). All the three types of cancer cells were able to induce comparable platelet aggregation, which, however, was observed exclusively in the presence of CaCl2 and autologous plasma. Aggregation was supported both by fibrinogen binding to integrin αIIbβ3 as well as by fibrin formation, and was completely prevented by the serine protease inhibitor PPACK. Platelet aggregation was preceded by generation of low amounts of thrombin, possibly through tumor cells-expressed tissue factor, and was supported by platelet activation, as revealed by stimulation of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ increase and activation of Rap1b GTPase. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C, but not of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Src family kinases prevented tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation. Tumor cells also induced dense granule secretion and the stimulation of the P2Y12 receptor by released ADP was found to be necessary for complete platelet aggregation. By contrast, prevention of thromboxane A2 synthesis by aspirin did not alter the ability of all the cancer cell lines analyzed to induce platelet aggregation. These results indicate that tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation is not related to type of the cancer cells or to their metastatic potential, and is triggered by platelet activation and secretion driven by the generation of small amount of thrombin from plasma and supported by the positive feedback signaling through secreted ADP.

Molecular mechanisms of platelet activation and aggregation induced by breast cancer cells

Canino, Jessica;
2018

Abstract

Tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation represents a critical process both for successful metastatic spread of the tumor and for the development of thrombotic complications in cancer patients. To get further insights into this process, we investigated and compared the molecular mechanisms of platelet aggregation induced by two different breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and a colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2). All the three types of cancer cells were able to induce comparable platelet aggregation, which, however, was observed exclusively in the presence of CaCl2 and autologous plasma. Aggregation was supported both by fibrinogen binding to integrin αIIbβ3 as well as by fibrin formation, and was completely prevented by the serine protease inhibitor PPACK. Platelet aggregation was preceded by generation of low amounts of thrombin, possibly through tumor cells-expressed tissue factor, and was supported by platelet activation, as revealed by stimulation of phospholipase C, intracellular Ca2+ increase and activation of Rap1b GTPase. Pharmacological inhibition of phospholipase C, but not of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Src family kinases prevented tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation. Tumor cells also induced dense granule secretion and the stimulation of the P2Y12 receptor by released ADP was found to be necessary for complete platelet aggregation. By contrast, prevention of thromboxane A2 synthesis by aspirin did not alter the ability of all the cancer cell lines analyzed to induce platelet aggregation. These results indicate that tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation is not related to type of the cancer cells or to their metastatic potential, and is triggered by platelet activation and secretion driven by the generation of small amount of thrombin from plasma and supported by the positive feedback signaling through secreted ADP.
Breast cancer cells; Calcium signaling; P2Y12 receptor; Phospholipase C; Platelets; Rap1; TCIPA
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12076/4047
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