Two full-scale building specimens were tested on the shake-table at the EUCENTRE Foundation laboratories in Pavia (Italy), to assess the effectiveness of an innovative timber retrofit solution, within a comprehensive research campaign on the seismic vulnerability of existing Dutch unreinforced masonry structures. The buildings represented the end-unit of a two-storey terraced house typical of the North-Eastern Netherlands, a region affected by induced seismicity over the last few decades. This building typology is particularly vulnerable to earthquake excitation due to lack of seismic details and irregular distribution of large openings in masonry walls. Both specimens were built with the same geometry. Their structural system consisted of cavity walls, with interior load-bearing calcium-silicate leaf and exterior clay veneer, and included a first-floor reinforced concrete slab, a second-floor timber framing, and a roof timber structure supported by masonry gables. A timber retrofit was designed and installed inside the second specimen, providing an innovative sustainable, light-weight, reversible, and cost-effective technique, which could be extensively applied to actual buildings. Timber frames were connected to the interior surface of the masonry walls and completed by oriented strands boards nailed to them. The second-floor timber diaphragm was stiffened and strengthened by a layer of oriented-strand boards, nailed to the existing joists and to additional blocking elements through the existing planks. These interventions resulted also in improved wall-to-diaphragm connections with the inner leaf at both floors, while steel ties were added between the cavity-wall leaves. The application of the retrofit system favored a global response of the building with increased lateral capacities of the masonry walls. This paper describes in detail the bare and retrofitted specimens, compares the experimental results obtained through similar incremental dynamic shake-table test protocols up to near-collapse conditions, and identifies damage states and damage limits associated with displacements and deformations.

Full‐scale shake‐table tests on two unreinforced masonry cavity‐wall buildings: effect of an innovative timber retrofit

Miglietta, Marco;Damiani, Nicolò;Graziotti, Francesco
2021

Abstract

Two full-scale building specimens were tested on the shake-table at the EUCENTRE Foundation laboratories in Pavia (Italy), to assess the effectiveness of an innovative timber retrofit solution, within a comprehensive research campaign on the seismic vulnerability of existing Dutch unreinforced masonry structures. The buildings represented the end-unit of a two-storey terraced house typical of the North-Eastern Netherlands, a region affected by induced seismicity over the last few decades. This building typology is particularly vulnerable to earthquake excitation due to lack of seismic details and irregular distribution of large openings in masonry walls. Both specimens were built with the same geometry. Their structural system consisted of cavity walls, with interior load-bearing calcium-silicate leaf and exterior clay veneer, and included a first-floor reinforced concrete slab, a second-floor timber framing, and a roof timber structure supported by masonry gables. A timber retrofit was designed and installed inside the second specimen, providing an innovative sustainable, light-weight, reversible, and cost-effective technique, which could be extensively applied to actual buildings. Timber frames were connected to the interior surface of the masonry walls and completed by oriented strands boards nailed to them. The second-floor timber diaphragm was stiffened and strengthened by a layer of oriented-strand boards, nailed to the existing joists and to additional blocking elements through the existing planks. These interventions resulted also in improved wall-to-diaphragm connections with the inner leaf at both floors, while steel ties were added between the cavity-wall leaves. The application of the retrofit system favored a global response of the building with increased lateral capacities of the masonry walls. This paper describes in detail the bare and retrofitted specimens, compares the experimental results obtained through similar incremental dynamic shake-table test protocols up to near-collapse conditions, and identifies damage states and damage limits associated with displacements and deformations.
Brick masonry cavity walls
Flexible diaphragm
Timber retrofit
Seismic performance
Damage states
Full‐scale shake‐table test
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12076/11256
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